Various health issues occur in every region of the world, but for this Global Health thematic field, we shall focus on developing countries. Unlike developed countries, many developing countries are unable to take measures for the control and prevention of diseases. They cannot protect lives. Thus, while the average life expectancy in Japan in 2016 was 84 years, in Sierra Leone in Africa it was only 50 years. What are the causes for this gap in life expectancy? Poverty, insufficient education, political instability, that is, social and political factors other than healthcare are also creating such disparities. One may feel anger at these unforgivable disparities in health, yet it is the mission of Global Health to calmly work on ways of correcting them. Not only diseases are threatening people’s lives. People in developing countries, in particular, are subjected to many threats such as disasters, armed conflicts, etc. One important first step in overcoming these challenges is to save people’s lives first and then, promoting their health and wellbeing. To protect the safety of individuals and communities living under such threats, not just from disease, are also the goals of human security, which emphasizes three freedoms: freedoms from fear, from want, and to live in dignity. In the ‘Global Health’ thematic field, we shall first come to grips with the actual circumstances of the disparities in global health. Secondly, we will examine the health disparities between specific groups such as migrants and non-migrants and then figure out ways to tackle these disparities by taking multifaceted approaches. Finally, we shall consider the values pursued beyond health: What are the goals when promoting health?